City Pottery

  

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In operation

1853-1856

Wares

doorknobs, doorplates, escutcheons, harness furniture (Harney 1929); porcelain doorknobs, plates and pitchers, white granite ware and cream-colored ware (Goldberg 1998:12-14).

Notes

“The second pottery was built by Mr. Attersley [sic], on the property where the establishment of Messrs. Yates & Titus now stands. This he worked in connection with Mr. William Young, and commenced the manufacture of porcelain door knobs and trimmings. These potteries were subsequently purchased by Messrs. Yates & Rhodes, who in 1857 introduced the manufacture of white crockery, known to the trade as C.C. (cane color), and W.G. (white granite) wares. The firm of Millington, Astbury & Co. grew out of this pottery, both these gentlemen having been formerly in business with Mr. Young” (Trenton State Gazette, Monday, August 27, 1866).

“The City Pottery was purchased in 1853 by Mr. Charles Hattersly [sic]. At one period it was under the management of William Young & Sons, who manufactured porcelain ware, such as door knobs, &c. Mr. Hattersley selected this location at about the same time that Mr. Taylor built the Trenton Pottery, but did not purchase it until June, 1853. In 1856 Mr. Yates bought the property from Mr. Hattersley. It was then leased to James and Thomas Lynch who manufactured drain pipes for about two years” (Mains and Fitzgerald 1879).

Site was purchased 1853 by Charles Hattersley who owned it until 1856. The pottery was first operated by William Young & Sons from 1854-56. It was bought in 1856 by Yates and leased to James & Thomas Lynch who made drainpipes c.1856-58 (Harney 1929).

On December 7, 1854 the pottery “received the first premium from the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, for the splendid specimens of Porcelain Ware manufactured at their establishment” (Harney 1929).

“William Young was the first potter to attempt the manufacture of porcelain in Trenton” (Denker 1989:9).

In 1852 Charles Hattersley traveled to Staffordshire, England to learn the latest methods of English style pottery manufacture. He returned to Trenton in 1853 and purchased a site located along the east bank of the Delaware and Raritan Canal at the corner of Perry and Carroll Streets. The deed for this property is dated June 3, 1853. “The pottery is described as consisting of a two-story frame building in the clear for the ware, a bone kiln, slip and trail kilns and slip houses” (Goldberg 1998:10).

City Pottery was the first factory in America to produce only white and cream wares (Goldberg 1998:13).

Apparently the first pottery in Trenton to employ a decorator for white ware. The description of Young’s entries to the Exhibition of American Manufacturers sponsored by the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, 1854 says: “Many of these were splendidly ornamental in gold and colors. The color was pure white.” This contradicts other writers’ assertions that the first decorator in Trenton who worked in gold was Theophile Frey, who arrived in 1859 (Goldberg 1998:13-14).

“This pottery is claimed to have been the first to make cream colored ware and porcelain in Trenton, and a small pitcher, produced in 1854, with a design of the ‘Babes in the Wood,’ is said to have been the earliest china made in Trenton” (Wall n.d.:4).

Selected References

R.G. Dun & Company Collection, Mercer County, 1854-1855: 1 [44]:287.

“The Manufactories of Trenton. Article II. The Pottery Trade.” Trenton State Gazette, Monday, August 27, 1866.

Metcalf, Edwin S. 1870. “The Trenton City Directory, 1870, Containing a General Directory of the Citizens, a Business Directory, and a Record of the City Government, Its Institutions, Societies, Corporations.” Webb Brothers & Co.

Raum, J.O. 1871. “History of the City of Trenton.” W.T. Nicholson & Co., Trenton, New Jersey.

Mains, Bishop W. and Fitzgerald, Thomas F. 1879. “Mains and Fitzgerald’s Trenton, Chambersburg and Millham Directory: Containing the Names of the Citizens, Statistical Business Report, Historical Sketches, a List of the Public and Private Institutions, Together with National, State, County, and City Government.” Bishop W. Mains & Thomas F. Fitzgerald, Trenton, New Jersey.

“The Trenton Potteries: 20 years Ago and Today.” Daily State Gazette, October 6, 1879.

Young, Jennie J. 1879. “The Ceramic Art: A Compendium of the History and Manufacture of Pottery and Porcelain.” Harper & Bros., New York, New York.

Woodward, E.M. and J.F. Hageman. 1883. “History of Burlington and Mercer Counties.” Everts and Peck, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Thomas Maddock’s Sons Co. 1910. “Pottery: A History of the Pottery Industry and Its Evolution as Applies to Sanitation.” Thomas Maddock’s Sons, Trenton, New Jersey.

Newark Museum Association. 1914. “The Work of The Potteries of New Jersey: From 1685 to 1876 , Being Extracts from ‘The Pottery and Porcelain of the United States,’ by Edwin Atlee Barber and Marks of New Jersey Potteries, as Reproduced from ‘Pottery,’ Published by The Thomas Maddock’s Sons Company.” Newark Museum Association, Newark, New Jersey.

Harney, W.J. 1929. “Trenton’s First Potteries.” Sunday Times Advertiser, July 7, 14, 21 and 28, 1929.

Trenton Chamber of Commerce. 1929. “Trenton: 250th Anniversary of the Settlement of Trenton.” On file, Trenton Public Library, Trenton, New Jersey.

Thorn, C. Jordan. 1947. “Handbook of Old Pottery & Porcelain Marks.” Tudor Publishing Company, New York, New York.

Podmore, Harry J. 1951. “City Pottery.” Sunday Times Advertiser, August 5, 1951.

Quigley, M.A. and D.E. Collier. 1984. “A Capital Place: The Story of Trenton.” Historical Society and Windsor Publications, Inc., Woodland Hills, California.

Leibowitz, Joan. 1985. “Yellow Ware: The Transitional Ceramic.” Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., West Chester, Pennsylvania.

Lehner, Lois. 1988. “Lehner’s Encyclopedia of U.S. Marks on Pottery, Porcelain & Clay.” Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky.

Denker, Ellen Paul. 1989. “Lenox China: Celebrating a Century of Quality 1889-1989.” Lenox, Inc., Trenton, New Jersey.

Frelinghuysen, Alice Cooney. 1989. “American Porcelain, 1770-1920.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York.

Goldberg, David J. 1998. “Preliminary Notes on the Pioneer Potters and Potteries of Trenton, N.J.: The First Thirty Years – 1852 – 1882 (And Beyond).” Privately published, Trenton, New Jersey.

Goldberg, David. 1999. “Mr. Young’s White Bird Whistle.” Trenton Potteries 1:4(6).

Hunter Research, Inc. 2005. “Historical and Archaeological Investigations at the Excelsior Pottery Site, South Street Bridge Replacement Project, City of Trenton, Mercer County, New Jersey.” Report on file, New Jersey Historic Preservation Office (NJDEP), Trenton, New Jersey.

Wall, John P. N.d. “History of the Potteries of Trenton, New Jersey.” Manuscript on file, Trenton Public Library, Trenton, New Jersey.

Other Names

William Young & Company

Block and Lot:
36B/26-30, 33

Historic Street Address:
Perry St. between East Canal St. and Carroll St.; Canal St. corner of Perry St.; Delaware and Raritan Canal above Rose; Perry near Carroll; Carroll near Perry; Ewing corner of Ogden; Carroll and Ewing; Perry, Carroll and Ewing; Perry corner of Canal

Municipality:
City of Trenton