William Young’s Sons Pottery


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In operation



porcelain, hardware trimmings, white granite, dipped, blue edge and c.c. wares (Lant 1872); earthenware, also porcelain hardware trimmings (Boyd and Boyd 1874); hardware and household crockery, ironstone china, c.c. ware, Queensware and hardware trimmings (Everts & Stewart 1875)

Maker's Marks

Click to enlarge


“In March, 1860, Millington and Astbury sold their interest in the pottery to the Youngs and the company was renamed William Young & Sons. It continued to operate under this name following the retirement of William Young in 1870 until his death in July, 1871. The dominating influence of the senior Young can be seen in the fact that, thereafter, the firm’s name was simply altered to that of ‘William Young’s Sons’. It retained this name until the Young family sold the pottery to the Willets Brothers in February, 1879 (Goldberg 1998:15).

Detailed history provided in Hunter Research, Inc. 2005:4-8.

Selected References

R.G. Dun & Company Collection, Mercer County. 1862-1875. 1 [44]:287 and 2[45]:362.

“The Manufactories of Trenton. Article II. The Pottery Trade.” Trenton State Gazette, Monday, August 27, 1866.

J.H. Lant & Co. 1868-1869. “The Trenton City Directory, for 1868 1869, Containing the Names of the Inhabitants, Together with a Business and Street Directory of the City, Business Directory of Mercer Co., and an Appendix of Valuable Information.” Vannote & Yard, Trenton, New Jersey.

Federal Census of New Jersey. 1870. Industrial Schedules. On file, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.

Metcalf, E.S. 1870. “The Trenton City Directory, 1870, Containing a General Directory of the Citizens, a Business Directory, and a Record of the City Government.

Slade, Charles H. 1871. “Trenton Directory, 1871, Containing a General Directory of the Citizens, a Business Directory, and a Record of the City Government, Its Institutions, Societies, Corporations, Etc.” Directory. Webb Brothers & Co.

J.H. Lant & Co. 1872. “The Trenton Directory, 1872, Containing a General Directory of the Citizens, a Business Directory, Together with a Town Business Directory of Mercer County, and Much Useful Miscellaneous Information.” J.H. Lant & Co., Trenton, New Jersey.

Boyd, Andrew and William H. Boyd. 1874-1876. “Boyd’s Trenton City Directory: Containing the Names of Its Citizens, a Compendium of Its Government and of Public and Private Institutions, and a Business Directory of the Principal Towns in Mercer County, a List of Farmers.” Andrew Boyd and W. Harry Boyd, Syracuse, New York and Pottsville, Pennsylvania.

Mains, Bishop W. and Thomas F. Fitzgerald. 1877-1878. “Mains and Fitzgerald’s Trenton, Chambersburg and Millham Directory: Containing the Names of the Citizens, Statistical Business Report, Historical Sketches, a List of the Public and Private Institutions, Together with National, State, County, and City Government.” Bishop W. Mains & Thomas F. Fitzgerald, Trenton, New Jersey.

Young, Jennie J. 1879. “The Ceramic Art: A Compendium of the History and Manufacture of Pottery and Porcelain.” Harper & Bros., New York, New York.

Woodward, E.M. and John F. Hageman. 1883. “History of Burlington and Mercer Counties.” Everts and Peck, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

J.M. Elstner & Co. 1889. “New Jersey’s Leading Cities Illustrated: Historical, Biographical, Commercial Review of the Progress in Commerce, the Professions and in Social, Municipal Life.” J.M. Elstner & Co., New York, New York.

Jervis, William P. 1897. “A Book of Pottery Marks.” Press of Hayes Bros., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Trenton Board of Trade. 1900. “Industrial Trenton and Vicinity.” George A. Wolf Publishers, Wilmington, Delaware.

Secretary of State. 1914. “Corporations of New Jersey, List of Certificates to December 31, 1911.” MacCrellish & Quigley, Trenton, New Jersey.

Harney, W.J. 1929. “Trenton’s First Potteries.” Sunday Times Advertiser, July 7, 14, 21 and 28, 1929.

Thorn, C. Jordan. 1947. “Handbook of Old Pottery & Porcelain Marks.” Tudor Publishing Company, New York, New York.

Robinson, Dorothy and Bill Feeny. 1980. “The Official Price Guide to American Pottery & Porcelain.” House of Collectibles, Orlando, Florida.

Leibowitz, Joan. 1985. “Yellow Ware: The Transitional Ceramic.” Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., West Chester, Pennsylvania.

Lehner, Lois. 1988. “Lehner’s Encyclopedia of U.S. Marks on Pottery, Porcelain & Clay.” Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky.

Frelinghuysen, Alice Cooney. 1989. “American Porcelain, 1770-1920.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York.

Nottle, Diane. 1997. “Beauty, Utility and Paychecks, All Built on a Base of Clay.” New York Times, November 9, 1997.

Goldberg, David J. 1998. “Preliminary Notes on the Pioneer Potters and Potteries of Trenton, N.J.: The First Thirty Years – 1852 – 1882 (And Beyond).” Privately published, Trenton, New Jersey.

Hunter Research, Inc. 2005 “Historical and Archaeological Investigations at the Excelsior Pottery Site, Southard Street Bridge Replacement Project, City of Trenton, Mercer County, New Jersey.” Report on file, New Jersey Historic Preservation Office (NJDEP), Trenton, New Jersey.

Wall, John P. N.d. “History of the Potteries of Trenton, New Jersey.” Manuscript on file, Trenton Public Library, Trenton, New Jersey.

Other Names

William Young & Sons; Wm. Young & Sons; William Young's Sons

Block and Lot:
46E-1/24, 53-68, 72, 76

Historic Street Address:
Brunswick Avenue near City Limits; Southard Street; 400 Southard Street

City of Trenton

1860 Census

Name in censusWm. Young & Sons
Capital Invested25000
Raw materials 1Coal
Quantity materials 1500 tons
Value materials 12000
Raw materials 2Clay
Quantity materials 2150 tons
Value materials 21300
Raw materials 3Flint
Quantity materials 3100 tons
Value materials 3700
Raw materials 4Spar
Quantity materials 450 tons
Value materials 4500
Raw materials 5Bone
Raw materials 6Cobalt
Quantity materials 560 tons
Quantity materials 610 lbs.
Value materials 51000
Value materials 650
Power type 1Engine-25 Horse and Hands
Male hands employed36
Female hands employed2
Male wages900
Female wages40
Kind of productQueensware & China
Value of product20000

1870 Census

Name in censusWm. Young & Sons
Capital Invested75000
Type of power 11 Steam Engine
Horsepower 125
Machine name 1Potters Wheels
Machine quantity 18
Raw material type 1Coal
Raw material quantity 11000 tons
Raw material value 16000
Raw material type 2Flint
Raw material type 3Spar
Raw material type 4Clay
Raw material type 5Lime
Raw material type 6Paris White
Raw material type 7Zinc
Raw material type 8Cobalt
Raw material type 9Biscid [Bisque]
Raw material type 10Oil
Raw material type 11Bone
Raw material type 12Total
Raw material quantity 2120 tons
Raw material quantity 360 tons
Raw material quantity 4300 tons
Raw material quantity 55 tons
Raw material quantity 62 tons
Raw material quantity 71 ton
Raw material quantity 8150 lbs
Raw material quantity 91000
Raw material quantity 10100 gal.
Raw material quantity 1140 tons
Raw material value 22000
Raw material value 31200
Raw material value 411000
Raw material value 51200
Raw material value 6150
Raw material value 7600
Raw material value 8600
Raw material value 9330
Raw material value 1065
Raw material value 111000
Raw material value 1223725
Product type 1Earthen Ware
Product type 2Porcelain
Product type 3Total
Product value 135000
Product value 215000
Product value 350000
Male hands above 1650
Female hands above 1611
Yearly wages28000
Months operating10