vitrified hotel china, hotel goods a specialty, dinner, tea and toilet ware in half-thick, decorated sets, knobs, lock finishings, electric supplies, etc. of vitrified ware, while novelties (Industries of New Jersey 1882:167); vitrified and translucent china, hotel ware and specialty items (Woodward and Hageman 1883); "American China" (Young 1879:463); vitrified chinaware (Industrial Directory 1901, 1906, 1909, 1912, 1918); vitrified hotel china (Industrial Directory 1927); vitrified china (Industrial Directory 1931)
“Be it enacted by the State and General Assembly of the State of New Jersey that Charles Brearley, James P. Stephens, James Tams, Isaac Stephens, George Brearley and their Associates be, and are hereby created a body politic and corporate, in fact and in law, by the name and style of the `Greenwood Pottery Company’ for the purpose of manufacturing, selling and dealing earthenware and crockery of various descriptionsÉ approved March 5, 1868” (Acts of the Ninety-Second Legislature 1868:238).
“On July 1st, 1868, a stock company was formed, and the works were improved and doubled in capacity É Their manufactures are vitrified hotel china, and hotel goods are made a specialty. They make dinner, tea and toilet ware in half-thick. Decorated sets are supplied to order É An important branch of the business, and a comparatively new one, is the manufacture of knobs, lock finishings, electric supplies, etc. of vitrified ware, while novelties of all kinds are being produced and perfected. The premises are 250×125 feet in dimensions, on which has been erected from time to time various buildings, devoted to the several departments of the business, two and three stories in height, built of brick, but which have now been united and brought under one roof on the east, forming a front of 225 feet, with a west wing 50×125 feet, another 50×100, and a third 50×80 feet. There are also the usual sheds, stables, etc., a railroad switch, and every convenience for shipment by rail or water, as well as the receipt of coal, clays, etc. There are six kilns and kiln sheds, three devoted to gloss and three to bisque, while the capacity is equal to seven of ordinary size. Two decorating kilns are also in use. A thirty-horse engine supplies the motive power and heats the buildings by means of steam pipes.
Steady employment is given to 150 hands É The officers of the Company are James Tams, President, and James P. Stephens is the Secretary and Treasurer. They own the fine property they occupy, the lot being 600×125 feet in dimensions. The capital is $200,000, of which $74,400 is paid in” (Industries of New Jersey 1882:167).
In 1881 the Greenwood Pottery Co. operated six kilns and employed one hundred fifty hands (Woodward and Hageman 1883:693).
“Until 1876 they made white granite or stone china ware. The mark used from 1865 to 1876 was the coat-of-arms of the State of New Jersey above the words ‘Ironstone China’ and ‘G. P. Co.’ This was printed black underglaze. The first table porcelain made at this pottery was stamped ‘G. P. Co.'” (Newark Museum Association 1914:22).
A fire broke out on the site in October 1882 (Harney 1929).
“The company made white granite ware, stone china, vitrified and translucent china, and a wide assortment of electrical and hardware items.
Greenwood also made a fine porcelain art line, typically decorated in the Royal Worcester style É” (Robinson and Feeny 1980:66).
“The pottery was incorporated in 1868 as the Greenwood Pottery Co. By that date, it had five kilns, which made it among the largest potteries then in operation. It continued to expand, absorbing the defunct National Pottery Co. into its complex. The company also formed the Greenwood China Co. in 1890 consisting of a new plant on Muirhead Avenue and the Eagle Pottery on Clinton Street” (Goldberg 1998:48).
Note: no clear evidence from maps that the Greenwood Pottery ever expanded on to the site of the National Pottery Company on the north side of Grand Avenue.
Acts of the Ninety-Second Legislature of the State of New Jersey, and Twenty-Fourth under the New Constitution. 1868. “Laws of New Jersey” A.R. Speer, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
J.H Lant & Co. 1868-1869. “The Trenton City Directory, for 1868-1869, Containing the Names of the Inhabitants, Together with a Business and Street Directory of the City, Business Directory of Mercer Co., and an Appendix of Valuable Information.” Vannote & Yard, Trenton, New Jersey.
Crosley, William F. 1869. “The Trenton City Directory, for 1869, Containing the Names of the Inhabitants, Together with a Business and Street Directory of the City and an Appendix of Valuable Information.” Murphy & Bechtel, Book and Job Printers, Trenton, New Jersey.
Federal Census of New Jersey. 1870. Industrial Schedules. On file, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.
Metcalf, Edwin S. 1870. “The Trenton City Directory, 1870, Containing a General Directory of the Citizens, a Business Directory, and a Record of the City Government, Its Institutions, Societies, Corporations.” Webb Brothers & Co.
Slade, Charles H. 1871. “Trenton Directory, 1871, Containing a General Directory of the Citizens, a Business Directory, and a Record of the City Government, Its Institutions, Societies, Corporations, Etc.” Directory. Webb Brothers & Co.
J.H. Lant & Co. 1872. “The Trenton Directory, 1872, Containing a General Directory of the Citizens, a Business Directory, Together with a Town Business Directory of Mercer County, and Much Useful Miscellaneous Information.” J.H. Lant & Co., Trenton, New Jersey.
“The Greenwood Pottery Company.” Crockery & Glass Journal, p. 22, December 23, 1875.
Boyd, Andrew and William H. Boyd. 1875-1876. “Boyd’s Trenton City Directory: Containing the Names of Its Citizens, a Compendium of Its Government and of Public and Private Institutions, and a Business Directory of the Principal Towns in Mercer County, a List of Farmers.” Andrew Boyd and W. Harry Boyd, Syracuse, New York and Pottsville, Pennsylvania.
Mains, Bishop W. and Fitzgerald, Thomas F. 1877-1879. “Mains and Fitzgerald’s Trenton, Chambersburg and Millham Directory: Containing the Names of the Citizens, Statistical Business Report, Historical Sketches, a List of the Public and Private Institutions, Together with National, State, County, and City Government.” Bishop W. Mains & Thomas F. Fitzgerald, Trenton, New Jersey.
Young, Jennie J. 1879. “The Ceramic Art: A Compendium of the History and Manufacture of Pottery and Porcelain.” Harper & Bros., New York, New York.
Federal Census of New Jersey. 1880. Industrial Schedules. On file, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.
Fitzgerald, Thomas F. 1880-1900. “Fitzgerald’s Trenton and Mercer County Directory, Together with a Directory of Bordentown, Burlington, Mount Holly and Lambertville, NJ and Morrisville, PA, Included a Fund of Information Concerning Public and Private Institutions, National, State, County, City and Borough Governments, Gathered from Reliable and Official Sources.” Thomas F. Fitzgerald, Trenton, New Jersey.
“Industries of New Jersey, Trenton, Princeton, Hightstown, Pennington and Hopewell.” 1882. Historical Publishing Company, New York, New York, Newark, New Jersey and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
“The Growth of Pottery: Work of the Greenwood Pottery.” Trenton Evening Times, November 10, 1883.
Woodward, E.M. and J.F. Hageman. 1883. “History of Burlington and Mercer Counties.” Everts and Peck, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
“Greenwood Pottery Co., East Canal Street est. 1861, inc. 1862.” State Gazette, Juily 31, 1897.
Stover, Edward C. 1900. “Technical Advances in Trenton.” Transactions of the American Ceramic Society, 147-150.
Fitzgerald, Thomas F. 1901-1933. “Fitzgerald’s Trenton and Mercer County Directory, Together with a Directory of Bordentown, Burlington, Mount Holly and Lambertville, NJ.” Thomas F. Fitzgerald, Trenton, New Jersey.
New Jersey Bureau of Industrial Statistics. 1901. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.
Hood, John. 1905. “Index of Colonial and State Laws of New Jersey Between the Years 1663 and 1903 Inclusive.” Sinnickson, Chew & Sons Co., Camden, New Jersey.
New Jersey Bureau of Industrial Statistics. 1906. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.
New Jersey Bureau of Industrial Statistics. 1909. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.
“James Tams Dies after Notable Life as Potter.” Trenton Evening Times, November 12, 1910.
New Jersey Bureau of Industrial Statistics. 1912. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.
Newark Museum Association. 1914. “The Work of The Potteries of New Jersey: From 1685 to 1876 , Being Extracts from ‘The Pottery and Porcelain of the United States,’ by Edwin Atlee Barber and Marks of New Jersey Potteries, as Reproduced from ‘Pottery,’ Published by The Thomas Maddock’s Sons Company.” Newark Museum Association, Newark, New Jersey.
Secretary of State. 1914. “Corporations of New Jersey, List of Certificates to December 31, 1911.” MacCrellish & Quigley, Trenton, New Jersey.
New Jersey Bureau of Industrial Statistics. 1918. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.
New Jersey Bureau of Statistics and Records, Department of Labor. 1927. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.
Harney, W.J. 1929. “Trenton’s First Potteries.” Sunday Times Advertiser, July 7, 14, 21 and 28, 1929.
New Jersey Bureau of Statistics and Records, State Department of Labor. 1931. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.
Cleary, J.J. 1932. “Greenwood Potteries.” Sunday Times Advertiser, May 1, 1932.
“James Tams, Dean among Potters.” 1938. Bulletin of the American Ceramic Society 17 (January):35-36.
Thorn, C. Jordan. 1947. “Handbook of Old Pottery & Porcelain Marks.” Tudor Publishing Company, New York, New York.
Lehner, Lois. 1980. “Complete Book of American Kitchen and Dinner Wares.” Wallace-Homestead Book Company, Des Moines, Iowa.
Robinson, Dorothy and Bill Feeny. 1980. “The Official Price Guide to American Pottery & Porcelain.” House of Collectibles, Orlando, Florida.
Quigley, M.A. and D.E. Collier. 1984. “A Capital Place: The Story of Trenton.” Historical Society and Windsor Publications, Inc., Woodland Hills, California.
Lehner, Lois. 1988. “Lehner’s Encyclopedia of U.S. Marks on Pottery, Porcelain & Clay.” Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky.
Frelinghuysen, Alice Cooney. 1989. “American Porcelain, 1770-1920.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York.
Goldberg, David J. 1998. “Preliminary Notes on the Pioneer Potters and Potteries of Trenton, N.J.: The First Thirty Years – 1852 – 1882 (And Beyond).” Privately published, Trenton, New Jersey.
Conroy, Barbara J. 1999. “Restaurant China: Volume 2.” Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky.
Other firms at this site:
Greenwood Pottery Company; Greenwood China Company
Block and Lot:
7C/15; NJ RT 26
Historic Street Address:
E. Canal St. near Grand; E. Canal St. near Creek; E. Canal St. on State St.; E. Canal near Mercer Cemetery; Canal near Creek; E. Canal near Grand Ave.; E. Canal near Clinton; 2 Canal near S. Clinton Ave.
City of Trenton
|Name in census||Greenwood Pottery Co.|
|Type of power 1||1 Steam & Hand Engine|
|Machine name 1||Blungers, Grinding Pans, Pug Mill|
|Machine name 2||Hydraulic Presses|
|Machine name 3||Ware [illegible] Hand & Steam|
|Machine quantity 2||25|
|Raw material type 1||Clay|
|Raw material quantity 1||600 tons|
|Raw material value 1||9000|
|Raw material type 2||Flint & Spar|
|Raw material type 3||Coal|
|Raw material type 4||Chemicals|
|Raw material type 5||Total|
|Raw material quantity 2||450 tons|
|Raw material quantity 3||1300 tons|
|Raw material quantity 4||25 tons|
|Raw material value 2||9000|
|Raw material value 3||7000|
|Raw material value 4||5000|
|Raw material value 5||30000|
|Male hands above 16||50|
|Female hands above 16||15|
|Name in census||Greenwood Pottery Co.|
|Number of hands||150|
|Males above 16||100|
|Females above 15||25|
|May to Nov hours||10|
|Nov to May hours||10|
|Total wages in year||53500|
|Full time months||12|
|Value of raw material||75000|
|Value of product||117000|
|Number of engines||1|