Greenwood Pottery

  

Metrodori liberos commendas

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut aliquid scire se gaudeant? At, si voluptas esset bonum, desideraret. Ergo id est convenienter naturae vivere, a natura discedere. Cur deinde Metrodori liberos commendas? Maximus dolor, inquit, brevis est.

Duo Reges: constructio interrete. Omnes enim iucundum motum, quo sensus hilaretur. Nihil illinc huc pervenit. Quid censes in Latino fore?

In operation

1868-1931

Wares

vitrified hotel china, hotel goods a specialty, dinner, tea and toilet ware in half-thick, decorated sets, knobs, lock finishings, electric supplies, etc. of vitrified ware, while novelties (Industries of New Jersey 1882:167); vitrified and translucent china, hotel ware and specialty items (Woodward and Hageman 1883); "American China" (Young 1879:463); vitrified chinaware (Industrial Directory 1901, 1906, 1909, 1912, 1918); vitrified hotel china (Industrial Directory 1927); vitrified china (Industrial Directory 1931)

Notes

“Be it enacted by the State and General Assembly of the State of New Jersey that Charles Brearley, James P. Stephens, James Tams, Isaac Stephens, George Brearley and their Associates be, and are hereby created a body politic and corporate, in fact and in law, by the name and style of the `Greenwood Pottery Company’ for the purpose of manufacturing, selling and dealing earthenware and crockery of various descriptionsÉ approved March 5, 1868” (Acts of the Ninety-Second Legislature 1868:238).

“On July 1st, 1868, a stock company was formed, and the works were improved and doubled in capacity É Their manufactures are vitrified hotel china, and hotel goods are made a specialty. They make dinner, tea and toilet ware in half-thick. Decorated sets are supplied to order É An important branch of the business, and a comparatively new one, is the manufacture of knobs, lock finishings, electric supplies, etc. of vitrified ware, while novelties of all kinds are being produced and perfected. The premises are 250×125 feet in dimensions, on which has been erected from time to time various buildings, devoted to the several departments of the business, two and three stories in height, built of brick, but which have now been united and brought under one roof on the east, forming a front of 225 feet, with a west wing 50×125 feet, another 50×100, and a third 50×80 feet. There are also the usual sheds, stables, etc., a railroad switch, and every convenience for shipment by rail or water, as well as the receipt of coal, clays, etc. There are six kilns and kiln sheds, three devoted to gloss and three to bisque, while the capacity is equal to seven of ordinary size. Two decorating kilns are also in use. A thirty-horse engine supplies the motive power and heats the buildings by means of steam pipes.

Steady employment is given to 150 hands É The officers of the Company are James Tams, President, and James P. Stephens is the Secretary and Treasurer. They own the fine property they occupy, the lot being 600×125 feet in dimensions. The capital is $200,000, of which $74,400 is paid in” (Industries of New Jersey 1882:167).

In 1881 the Greenwood Pottery Co. operated six kilns and employed one hundred fifty hands (Woodward and Hageman 1883:693).

“Until 1876 they made white granite or stone china ware. The mark used from 1865 to 1876 was the coat-of-arms of the State of New Jersey above the words ‘Ironstone China’ and ‘G. P. Co.’ This was printed black underglaze. The first table porcelain made at this pottery was stamped ‘G. P. Co.'” (Newark Museum Association 1914:22).

A fire broke out on the site in October 1882 (Harney 1929).

“The company made white granite ware, stone china, vitrified and translucent china, and a wide assortment of electrical and hardware items.

Greenwood also made a fine porcelain art line, typically decorated in the Royal Worcester style É” (Robinson and Feeny 1980:66).

“The pottery was incorporated in 1868 as the Greenwood Pottery Co. By that date, it had five kilns, which made it among the largest potteries then in operation. It continued to expand, absorbing the defunct National Pottery Co. into its complex. The company also formed the Greenwood China Co. in 1890 consisting of a new plant on Muirhead Avenue and the Eagle Pottery on Clinton Street” (Goldberg 1998:48).

Note: no clear evidence from maps that the Greenwood Pottery ever expanded on to the site of the National Pottery Company on the north side of Grand Avenue.

Selected References

Acts of the Ninety-Second Legislature of the State of New Jersey, and Twenty-Fourth under the New Constitution. 1868. “Laws of New Jersey” A.R. Speer, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

J.H Lant & Co. 1868-1869. “The Trenton City Directory, for 1868-1869, Containing the Names of the Inhabitants, Together with a Business and Street Directory of the City, Business Directory of Mercer Co., and an Appendix of Valuable Information.” Vannote & Yard, Trenton, New Jersey.

Crosley, William F. 1869. “The Trenton City Directory, for 1869, Containing the Names of the Inhabitants, Together with a Business and Street Directory of the City and an Appendix of Valuable Information.” Murphy & Bechtel, Book and Job Printers, Trenton, New Jersey.

Federal Census of New Jersey. 1870. Industrial Schedules. On file, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.

Metcalf, Edwin S. 1870. “The Trenton City Directory, 1870, Containing a General Directory of the Citizens, a Business Directory, and a Record of the City Government, Its Institutions, Societies, Corporations.” Webb Brothers & Co.

Slade, Charles H. 1871. “Trenton Directory, 1871, Containing a General Directory of the Citizens, a Business Directory, and a Record of the City Government, Its Institutions, Societies, Corporations, Etc.” Directory. Webb Brothers & Co.

J.H. Lant & Co. 1872. “The Trenton Directory, 1872, Containing a General Directory of the Citizens, a Business Directory, Together with a Town Business Directory of Mercer County, and Much Useful Miscellaneous Information.” J.H. Lant & Co., Trenton, New Jersey.

“The Greenwood Pottery Company.” Crockery & Glass Journal, p. 22, December 23, 1875.

Boyd, Andrew and William H. Boyd. 1875-1876. “Boyd’s Trenton City Directory: Containing the Names of Its Citizens, a Compendium of Its Government and of Public and Private Institutions, and a Business Directory of the Principal Towns in Mercer County, a List of Farmers.” Andrew Boyd and W. Harry Boyd, Syracuse, New York and Pottsville, Pennsylvania.

Mains, Bishop W. and Fitzgerald, Thomas F. 1877-1879. “Mains and Fitzgerald’s Trenton, Chambersburg and Millham Directory: Containing the Names of the Citizens, Statistical Business Report, Historical Sketches, a List of the Public and Private Institutions, Together with National, State, County, and City Government.” Bishop W. Mains & Thomas F. Fitzgerald, Trenton, New Jersey.

Young, Jennie J. 1879. “The Ceramic Art: A Compendium of the History and Manufacture of Pottery and Porcelain.” Harper & Bros., New York, New York.

Federal Census of New Jersey. 1880. Industrial Schedules. On file, New Jersey State Archives, Trenton, New Jersey.

Fitzgerald, Thomas F. 1880-1900. “Fitzgerald’s Trenton and Mercer County Directory, Together with a Directory of Bordentown, Burlington, Mount Holly and Lambertville, NJ and Morrisville, PA, Included a Fund of Information Concerning Public and Private Institutions, National, State, County, City and Borough Governments, Gathered from Reliable and Official Sources.” Thomas F. Fitzgerald, Trenton, New Jersey.

“Industries of New Jersey, Trenton, Princeton, Hightstown, Pennington and Hopewell.” 1882. Historical Publishing Company, New York, New York, Newark, New Jersey and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

“The Growth of Pottery: Work of the Greenwood Pottery.” Trenton Evening Times, November 10, 1883.

Woodward, E.M. and J.F. Hageman. 1883. “History of Burlington and Mercer Counties.” Everts and Peck, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

“Greenwood Pottery Co., East Canal Street est. 1861, inc. 1862.” State Gazette, Juily 31, 1897.

Stover, Edward C. 1900. “Technical Advances in Trenton.” Transactions of the American Ceramic Society, 147-150.

Fitzgerald, Thomas F. 1901-1933. “Fitzgerald’s Trenton and Mercer County Directory, Together with a Directory of Bordentown, Burlington, Mount Holly and Lambertville, NJ.” Thomas F. Fitzgerald, Trenton, New Jersey.

New Jersey Bureau of Industrial Statistics. 1901. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.

Hood, John. 1905. “Index of Colonial and State Laws of New Jersey Between the Years 1663 and 1903 Inclusive.” Sinnickson, Chew & Sons Co., Camden, New Jersey.

New Jersey Bureau of Industrial Statistics. 1906. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.

New Jersey Bureau of Industrial Statistics. 1909. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.

“James Tams Dies after Notable Life as Potter.” Trenton Evening Times, November 12, 1910.

New Jersey Bureau of Industrial Statistics. 1912. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.

Newark Museum Association. 1914. “The Work of The Potteries of New Jersey: From 1685 to 1876 , Being Extracts from ‘The Pottery and Porcelain of the United States,’ by Edwin Atlee Barber and Marks of New Jersey Potteries, as Reproduced from ‘Pottery,’ Published by The Thomas Maddock’s Sons Company.” Newark Museum Association, Newark, New Jersey.

Secretary of State. 1914. “Corporations of New Jersey, List of Certificates to December 31, 1911.” MacCrellish & Quigley, Trenton, New Jersey.

New Jersey Bureau of Industrial Statistics. 1918. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.

New Jersey Bureau of Statistics and Records, Department of Labor. 1927. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.

Harney, W.J. 1929. “Trenton’s First Potteries.” Sunday Times Advertiser, July 7, 14, 21 and 28, 1929.

New Jersey Bureau of Statistics and Records, State Department of Labor. 1931. “The Industrial Directory of New Jersey.” Trenton, New Jersey.

Cleary, J.J. 1932. “Greenwood Potteries.” Sunday Times Advertiser, May 1, 1932.

“James Tams, Dean among Potters.” 1938. Bulletin of the American Ceramic Society 17 (January):35-36.

Thorn, C. Jordan. 1947. “Handbook of Old Pottery & Porcelain Marks.” Tudor Publishing Company, New York, New York.

Lehner, Lois. 1980. “Complete Book of American Kitchen and Dinner Wares.” Wallace-Homestead Book Company, Des Moines, Iowa.

Robinson, Dorothy and Bill Feeny. 1980. “The Official Price Guide to American Pottery & Porcelain.” House of Collectibles, Orlando, Florida.

Quigley, M.A. and D.E. Collier. 1984. “A Capital Place: The Story of Trenton.” Historical Society and Windsor Publications, Inc., Woodland Hills, California.

Lehner, Lois. 1988. “Lehner’s Encyclopedia of U.S. Marks on Pottery, Porcelain & Clay.” Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky.

Frelinghuysen, Alice Cooney. 1989. “American Porcelain, 1770-1920.” Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York.

Goldberg, David J. 1998. “Preliminary Notes on the Pioneer Potters and Potteries of Trenton, N.J.: The First Thirty Years – 1852 – 1882 (And Beyond).” Privately published, Trenton, New Jersey.

Conroy, Barbara J. 1999. “Restaurant China: Volume 2.” Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky.

Other Names

Greenwood Pottery Company; Greenwood China Company

Block and Lot:
7C/15; NJ RT 26

Historic Street Address:
E. Canal St. near Grand; E. Canal St. near Creek; E. Canal St. on State St.; E. Canal near Mercer Cemetery; Canal near Creek; E. Canal near Grand Ave.; E. Canal near Clinton; 2 Canal near S. Clinton Ave.

Municipality:
City of Trenton

1870 Census

Name in censusGreenwood Pottery Co.
Capital Invested50000
Type of power 11 Steam & Hand Engine
Horsepower 130
Machine name 1Blungers, Grinding Pans, Pug Mill
Machine name 2Hydraulic Presses
Machine name 3Ware [illegible] Hand & Steam
Machine quantity 225
Raw material type 1Clay
Raw material quantity 1600 tons
Raw material value 19000
Raw material type 2Flint & Spar
Raw material type 3Coal
Raw material type 4Chemicals
Raw material type 5Total
Raw material quantity 2450 tons
Raw material quantity 31300 tons
Raw material quantity 425 tons
Raw material value 29000
Raw material value 37000
Raw material value 45000
Raw material value 530000
Male hands above 1650
Female hands above 1615
Children35
Yearly wages35000
Months operating8

1880 Census

Name in censusGreenwood Pottery Co.
Capital135000
Number of hands150
Males above 16100
Females above 1525
Children25
May to Nov hours10
Nov to May hours10
Skilled wages2.5
Ordinary wages1.25
Total wages in year53500
Full time months12
Value of raw material75000
Value of product117000
Number of engines1
Horse power25